Sabtu, 28 Mac 2009

OUMH 1303 EW - edisi imann9969

OUMH 1303 EW

Researching For a Paper

* What do you looking for in writing a research paper?

- find new ways to use or understand info already available.
- generate new knowledge.
- turn data you already have into samething more useful by adding a little of your inspiration.
- looking for info – that is already available to help develop ideas and making our ideas stranger and more tenable.

* What are types of information.

1. Primary info – gain through experience.
2. Secondary info – data get when someone relates his/her finding or experience to other people or recording it.
3. Tertiary info – the produce of people reflecting on the things they or other people have recorded.

* On line searching.

Search Engines.
1. straight forward search engines – searches its own data base.
2. the met a search engine – searches a number of other search engines for info.

E – texts

- complete books and other long documents.
- their copyright limits have expired.
-they are over 20 years old.
- but they do provide in depth knowledge on many areas.

*Virtual libraries and oneline resources.
- access to actual libraries through and library systems.
- date processing programmes that keep track of books avaible.

* The library
- a well stocked and equipped library is the best source of in – depth info.

* How to use a library
- must be organised
- books can be borrowed
organised using the classification system.
-according to their subject areas.
-Dewey system – based on members.
-Library of congress system – based on alphabets.
i. call number
ii. author’s name.
iii. year of publication.
iv. member of copies available.

* The Encyclopedia.
Advantage – give a direct quick look at the or idea you a researching.
- looking for basic information and involve proceses – look for handbooks or manuals.
- looking for other related words – use the dictionasies and lexicons.
-information an places – look in the atleses.
-quotations – consult quotation books.
-unleed to specific individuals look up dictionation, biographies.

* Always look in the index first if you are searching for information in the encyclopedia.

On line searching
-search engine, - E-texts,
- virtual libraries and on-line resources.
The library.
-the classification system.
- encyclopedia.

Writing the research paper.

Step 1 – refine your thesis statement.
- bear in mind the required world – length of the paper.
- Look at the thesis statement to see whether it is clear, warkable and able to serve to guide for the whole research paper.
- Look for the origins of the problem on issue you are examinings.
- Pick up thread or line of thought.Divide into 3:
- general subject on area.
- spesific topic
- suggested thesis statement.

Step 2 – write topic sentences and give them supporting details.
- convey ideas that are easily understand and coherent – relavant to the primary thesis and must be logically related to one another.
- Organising idea according to time and chronological for one main idea.

Step 3 – organising and connect your supporting details.
- organise idea according to time and chronological order – order of emphasis (using markers) and using transitional signals to connect details and arguments.

Step 4 – writing clear sentences.
-easy to read and understand.
- not too long.
- complete sentence – one idea.
- avoid writing fragments.
- careful of dependent words which.
-does not mean much like if, in order to.
- avoid run sentences – two complete sentences without any connecting.-correct verb form.
-subjects and verbs must agree.
-proper use of pronouns.
-correct spelling.
-correct vocabulary.
-very stence structure.

Referencing and editing.

Making Quates and References.


- to acknowledge ideas from other
- to let other, readers know that you have
done your homework.

* Quoting
– building quotations into your prose.
- using fullstops and commas correctly.
- punctuation marks not from an original
text placed them ofter the last
quotation mark.
- include the name of the author, the date
and the page (name,year,page)
- Quoting short pieces, 40 words or less.
- Quoting longer pieces – indent the paragraph.
- Using ellipees and interpolation.
e.g The students a comprehension, questioning session.
- the ethics of quoting – do not
change the original words.

The Art of Editing.

When? A day after we have finished writing.

A – Editing For Language.
1. Clear sentences – easy toread and understand.
2. Clear sentences – not too long.
3. White complete sentences.
4. Avoid writing fragments ( in complete sentences)
5. Be careful of dependent words (after, through, because, etc) – make sure the sentences they connected to is not missing.
6. Avoid run – out sentences (two sentences put together without connecting marks).
7. Use correct verb forms and subject – verb – agreement.
8. Use the correct pronouns.
9. Use correct purtuations marks.
10. Use correct spelling.

B. Editing for content.
1. Must be coherent – every item and every thought must be relevant to the primary thesis.
2. Organise your paragraphs – one paragraphs are main idea.

Introduction of letter writing

What are the basic of letter writing.

1. Address/ write and reader.
2. Introduction / greeting, thank, info.
a. always greet our reader/recipient
e.g Dear Sir/Madam, Dear Dato’ ,
Sir or Madam
b. If replying , always acknowledge the past letter or thank her/him for writing.
e.g In response to your letter dated 12 January 2002, I would like to ...
e.g firstly, I thank you for your interest in our company...

c. Self – introduction (humility)
Introduce yourself for the first time letter.
e.g “ I am writing to you on behalf of..” is fine if you are writing in as a representative of your organization.

d. Be flexible and creative.
Give your reader a clear idea.

3.Middle –content and purpose
- is the largest part.
- the sentences should be short and precise
- straight to the point (not flowering)
- always acknowledge and value the interest of your recipient.
- it should read and flow well.

4. the end of the letter.
- be complementary and polite.
- use a proper salutation.
e.g yours truly or yours sincerely.

Why we write a letter.

1. to contact the reader whom we cannot meet in person.
2. they allow us to structure our thought in accurately.
3.can file or keep to and refer back when needed.

Hints in the letter writing.
1. Don’t write in haste but need to spend time on.
2. our thought must clear.
3. need some practices.

The parts of a formal letter.

1. the letter head.
2. the address.
3. the date.
4. the recipient’s adress.
5. salutations.
6. the subject line
7. the introduction.
8. the middle/body
9. the ending.
10. your closing solutations
11. the sender’s name.
12. the sender’s tittle/position.

Type of letter.

1. Original letter
2. Replying letter.
3. Follow up letter
- unnoticed, - reminder
4. Conferences letter

Differences between writing an original letter and writing a reply letter.

Original letter.
- you write a letter.
- Want information.

Reply letter.
- they have sent you a letter.
- Give information.

Follow up letter .Why?
- your letter may have been unnoticed
- to make sure that your contacts
have information about your
- give other person a chance.
- Cheaper that getting legal council

Original Formal Letters

For original letters question asked are:
1. What is the primary purpose of my letter?
2. What do I want my reader to know or do?
3. Is there a second purpose?
4. Why do I want him/her/them to know or do this?
5. How will they benefit if they do what I want them to do or know?
6. Points that I want to include in my letter.
7. What approach do I want my letter to take?

How to add substance to your plan sheets?

- transfer the sentences or ideas into a language that is more fitting for formal letter by translating the plans into more appropriate language.

Why do we need to reply letters and follow up letters.

1. Because people needs more information.
2. It is a tool of communication.
3. when the first letter did not grab their attention.

What is the difference between original letters and reply letters?

Original letters are letters you send to someone but reply letters is written to answer to someone who has sent a letter to you.

Plan sheet for reply letter?

1. What is primary purpose of the letter?
2. What does the writer want to know or what me to do?


Academic Reading

1. has to be deliberate – pay close attention to details – able to use that info later.
2. collecting information – trying to understand process – facing different people with different puspective on the same.
3. pleasurable, interesting and challenging.
4. to ecquire knowledge relevant to a specific course.
5. acquire info that allow you execute specific tasks like writing an essay, etc.

The Purpose Of Academic Reading.

To acquire:

1. Info – facts and opinions.
2. Terminology and definitions.
3. Models and paradigms.
4. Names and deeds.
5. How to process.
6. Reading essential texts.
7. Reading for and as assigment
8. Reading for revision.

What do you get from reading?
- to access specific kinds of information.

Why is it hard to differentiate between information facts and opinions?

1. Most academic authors try to convince that they are right.
2. We have atendency for us to accept something (idea,etc) as correct only because it comes from a book.

Clues that show the difference.

Lexical clues.
e.g indicative words.
I believe, we propose modal verbs
: must, inarguable, perhaps,

Why is reading essential texts
Because we need to:

1. know so that we can confidently
take examinations.
2. do assigments.

Every academic disipline has a language of its own – these languages are made up of special words called terminology. Each of these name has its own definition its own meaning.

How do you look for the meaning of the terminology and defination?

1. refer to the dictionary which is specified for a particular discipline.
2. When the defination different from one author to another, it is important to have you own understand of what the words mean.

Model and Paradigm.

- a framework of scheme through which practitioners of the decipline see and make sense of the word they observe.Thru their own understanding.

Names and Deeds
Important names related to academic

How to recognise a paradigm?
A paradigm often has its own worlds for
-both real and abstract
If words or terminology are brought
together - language is formed that can
explain the world, much more accurate
than plain language.

The characteristics of process (pg 82)
1. They are sequential but when written
they may not be presented in sequence they work it.
2. The sequences are often laid out clearly.
3. Each steps has its reasons.

Reading For Assignments

Why is reading for assignment has a sense
of urgency in it?
1. If you do not read, you will not have enough info to complete tasks.
2. You will run out of time
3. if you do not do your assignment well, you will get good marks.

How do you fulfill your assignments well?
- analyse the tasks given carefully
- understand keywords – defining/paraphrasing or explicating them
- need to look for available solutions
- Need to plan out how you intend to complete the assignment

When do models and paradigms show up ?
- when they are used in analysis
- when you analyse the thinking of the author

Common sense principles about language
1. The word is not the thing
2. Hard to pin down the meanings of general, abstract, relative terms.
3. Context determines meanings.
4. Don’t mix inference and facts.
5. There are different kinds of truth.
6. Some statements inform other direct
7. Words have hidden emotional content.

Reading For Revision
In revision:
- we already know the text (no looking for new info )
- reading to clarify your memory of texts

What do you do in revision?
- make certain of things already known about the subject.
- Need to identify he parts, issues, etc need to clarified.
- Need to distinguish between things to memorise and things to understand.

Why should you read early in the course?
Because there is often much to do in the course you take.

What are the two technicques of fast reading?
Skimming and scanning.

- try to pick out important points
- looking for something in particular

- looking for overall structure of the text
- by running your eyes quickly ones a block of text.


SQ3R Reading

SQ3R – Survey, Question , Read, Recite and Review

- it is a study skill method
- teach how to extract, process, store, use information you gain from your reading in effective and useful ways.

Why SQ3R?
- we learn and remember things better when they make sense
- we make an emotional connection to the issue i.e enable us to make connections in the knowledge gain.
- It makes us read and learn more effectively.


What do we look for when we survey the text?
1. Read and undestand the title
2. Read the introduction and summary.
3. Take note of each bold face heading and subheading.
4. look for reading aids (italics, bold print) and graphics (charts, maps, diagrams)

Why do we survey ?
Because it saves us a lot of time to understand the text.

Questioning The Text

How do we question the text?
Take the boldface headings and turn each of them into a question


What must you have before starting the reading of the text ?
- built an elaborate mental structure that needs to be fleshed out.

How do you read?
- make questions and outline are hardy
- read actively with questions in mind
- read section by section
- after each section, try to answer the questions written.
- Review what you have read
- Give yourselves quizzes or with apartner

How do we enhance reading?
- use a highlighter to mark imp. Points
- set a time goal so that ou can pace your reading

Points to remember
- read at your own comfortable speed
- concentrate when you read – find a comfortable and quiet place to read.


Steps to recite and recall
1. recite the text as you read – help your mind to concentrate on the text.
2. recall the questions for the section and see if you can answer them. If not read again.
3. Use mnemonics to remember.
4. Write down key words, key phrases and points.

Why do we recite and recall
- To ensure that you understand the material
- To make sure you have understood and remembered the material after you read it.

Points o remember while reciting and recalling
Use your own words


How do we review ?
1. Go through the text again
2. look at the questions formulated before and answer them.
3. look at the keywords and phrases for each section.
4. If we can remember what the imp. things for each section are then reviewing is done.

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